Fridays are awesome. I`m Carl Azuz, and it`s
my privilege to welcome you to 10 minutes
of current events.
We`re starting with a new education law in
the U.S. that could affect 55 million grade
school students. President Obama signed it
into law yesterday after it gathered bipartisan
support in Congress. It`s called the Every
Student Succeeds Act and it replaces the controversial
No Child Left Behind law passed in 2002.
What will stay the same? Mandatory testing
and an emphasis on test scores to indicate
group of students who are failing. What will
change? Power will return to states to decide
what to do about schools with failing or underperforming
The president of the American Federation of
Teachers called the new law a course correction,
saying it moves toward a policy where states
have more authority in educating children.
Critics are concerned that without the government
overseeing them, states may be less willing
to fix failing schools.
“We cannot stop what we cannot see,” a quote
from U.S. Representative Mike McCaul. He`s
talking about encryption technology and how
it could help potential terrorist keep their
Officials aren`t certain if encryption technology
was used by the terrorists who recently targeted
a holiday party in San Bernardino, California,
or by those who carried out last month`s attacks
in Paris, France. But Congress is considering
a formal review of the technology because
there`s some encryption that the government
can`t easily crack.
Should law enforcement be allowed access to
communications and how does privacy factor
Throughout history, coding and decoding messages
has fueled wars. Take World War II. Mathematicians
cracked German codecreated by a machine called
It`s the greatest encryption device in history
and the Germans use it for all major communications.
Fast forward to Arab Spring, how did protesters
organize safely? Many do something called
encryption. But that`s also the same way terrorists
might work together to plan a major attack.
The whole idea is to make your messages secret.
Encryption jumbles words into random numbers,
letters, characters. The words only decode
for the person who`s meant to read them.
It`s this technique that sparked the debate
at the highest levels of government, because
the same tech that helps the good guys also
shields the bad. And that tech is going mainstream.
At the center of it all, this guy.
We`re out of food, honestly.
And the means to cook it?
Yes, how does that feel?
His name is Moxie Marlinspike. It sounds made
up because, well, it is. He`s a world renowned
hacker and he`s obsessed with your privacy.
He won`t tell you where he`s from or really
anything about his past. But everyone, from
secret agents, to whistleblower Edward Snowden,
looks to what he has to say on one topic,
If I share photos online with my friends,
my intention is to share it with those friends.
It`s not to share with like, you know, Twitter
the economy, or Facebook the economy, or the
Moxie built an app called Signal, that makes
encryption easy to use. His tech is also used
by WhatsApp, the messaging service owned by
Facebook. He might be a private guy, but his
work is now in the hands of millions.
It`s actually the most popular messenger in
the world. Now, when people communicate with
each other, those messages that they send
are encrypted, all the way from their device
to the recipient`s device. So, nobody in between
can see what they`re saying.
It`s making it easier than ever to protect
yourself and harder for law enforcement to
crackdown, spurring conversations like these
All of our papers, in effect, all of our communications
will, at some point, be covered by strong
encryption. That will have profound consequences
for law enforcement.
Where this is headed is towards proposals,
for some kind of stockpile of encryption keys.
I think this proposal is a big time loser.
I lean probably further in the direction of
strong encryption than some do, but I am sympathetic
to law enforcement, because I know the kind
of pressure they`re under to keep us safe.
Some in Washington want the ability to access
encrypted conversations, if there`s reason
to think there`s a threat. Think of it as
asking for a key to the locked door.
I don`t think you want to stakeout (ph) encryption
technology, but the question is, do we then
try to provide some exceptional access to
technologies of that sort, by building a front
door under the bright light of the rule of
For Inglis, the answer is yes. But to Moxie,
that`s just not possible.
They are not capable of managing those secrets,
you know? Like they`re getting hacked every
day, you know? And so, it`s not — it`s not
realistic to think that if they have like
the key to the kingdom, they`re going to somehow
be able to simultaneously use it and keep
it safe from, you know, China, or random hackers
or other nation states.
Some folks in Washington want Silicon Valley
to build secure solutions. It doesn`t look
like Moxie is going to be the guy for that.
He plays by his own of rules and a new era
of where tech drives the good, the bad, and
in this case, the policy.
We`re at the moment in history where it`s
mostly possible for us to sort of ignore the
policy discussions that are happening, instead
of like asking people to change the law or
to change their surveillance practices or
whatever. We can just do it ourselves.
We always welcome international viewers to
CNN STUDENT NEWS. We`ve called on every continent
but Antarctica, so far.
Today, we`re starting in the southern African
nation of Zambia. Kitwe is the city in northern
Zambia. It`s great to see you at Lifesong
To the U.S. northeast, Guilford is the town
in southern Connecticut, the home of the Bulldogs
of Abraham Baldwin Middle School.
And in Wichita, the largest city in Kansas,
we`re shouting out the Dolphins of St. Elizabeth
Ann Seton Catholic School.
Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has
been awarded to 172 people. That includes
these three men: Aziz Sancar, Paul Modrich,
and Tomas Lindahl. They won the 2015 prize.
Their work focusing on how proteins repair
our DNA when it gets damage.
CNN`s Dr. Sanjay Gupta guides us up a spiral
staircase of knowledge about human DNA.
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, it`s the genetic
formula that tells your cells how to build
you into you and no one else.
Think of your DNA as four Legos that like
to play in pairs, A and T, C and G, along
a spiral staircase called the “Double Helix”.
Those pairs form building blocks of code called
genes. They become the blueprint for your
hair, eyes, body shape and everything else
that makes you unique.
You have over 20,000 genes, created from about
3 billion pairs, so it`s easy to see why no
other human will have the exact same pattern
Unless, of course, you have an identical twin.
Each cell in your body has about six feet
of DNA, unravel them all and your DNA would
stretch from here to Pluto 18.5 times.
But to live inside each cell`s microscopic
nucleus, each long strand of DNA gets wrapped
like a noodle into 46 chromosomes. You got
those chromosomes from your parents, 23 from
dad, 23 from mom. There is one from dad that
is special, it determines if you`re a girl
or a buy.
Our DNA is only about 1 percent different
from a chimpanzee. But that tiny change has
made all we know and accomplish possible.
When you`re a bulldog, life is just amazing.
You could ask Dr. Moore at Bluffton Middle
School, or you could just watch this. Forget
the bulldog on a skateboard, this one can
drive, keeps the windshield clean too. Maybe
he should just fold it down. You can do that
with a Jeep.
What`s amazing about this, besides the fact
that it`s a bulldog that can drive, is the
fact that he goes for quite a while without
hitting anything, even mailbox escapes a collision.
So, while other dogs are chasing cars or barking
up the wrong tree, dogging the neighborhood
cat or driving their owners crazy, this one
is on a transmission. He`s keeping it wheels.
It`s time for us to scoot. I`m Carl Azuz.
Hope you have a great weekend.